The research process is an activity that should be characterized by specific rules and indications. In short, these are treatments that you use consciously or not to solve a scientific problem.
Here’s a short description:
The first one is observation – one of the basic research methods
in social sciences, used primarily in sociology, ethnology, anthropology and psychology. Here we are dealing with its two types:
open observation, that is, the subjects know that they are of interest to the observer, but they do not have to be informed about the object and purpose of the research. For this reason, they can change their behavior
observation of covert (hidden) persons do not know
about being an object of observation, thanks to which their behaviors are treated as more “natural”. A certain difficulty when using this technique is the need to record results in an unnoticed or unsuspected manner. However, this technique may be ethically questionable because it does not allow subjects to object to the study.
The second method is called pedagogical experiment – a method based mainly on observation technique, but carried out in specially organized conditions, which is why it is an independent method. The basic difference between observation and experiment is that the researcher’s attitude in the case of an experiment is active – it is usually a character intervening in the study of the phenomenon, while the observer’s attitude is usually passive.
A pedagogical experiment may take the form of a laboratory experiment in which a given process is called or changed, or a natural experiment, when we examine a given process in typical circumstances. We distinguish several of its stages:
- The stage of formulating the problem
- The stage of formulating the work hypothesis
- Stage of prediction of consequences (reasoning stage)
- The stage of preparing the verification of the external working hypothesis
- A more detailed description of the studied population
- Designation of the content on which research is to be carried out
- Determining the necessary and possible time of testing
- Defining and characterizing these phenomena that are to be the subject of our detailed research attention
- Selection and description of the test method
- The stage of empirical verification of the hypothesis
- Checking the validity of solutions (veracity of results)
- Final application
- One of the main tools for measuring variables in tests conducted by means of an experiment are tests.