Generally, the test test – test] is an attempt to recognize the properties of certain objects that interest us. Usually, it consists of a rationally selected set of tasks to be carried out by a person or a study group. Tests are a separate method of research and, like all kinds of tests, also written and oral forms of control of learning outcomes are used to assess the results of experimental studies or observations.
Testing differs from other methods of controlling and evaluating learning outcomes in that they are more accurate, more objective and measurable. On the other hand, the selection and layout of test tasks depends on the nature of the examined factors in the group or person interested in the research.
Test methods enable the comparison of groups and individuals, and the determination of individual differences for this reason are quite often used in selection processes and to study school achievements.
That’s why in didactic research, first of all, so-called tests of elementary skills, such as reading, writing and the simplest arithmetic operations, as well as various tests of knowledge and skills. The latter are also called didactic tests, sometimes they are divided into professional and teaching tests.
The first of them prepared by specialists and must meet many conditions resulting from statistics and long-term verification tests, while the latter may be constructed by persons who test the results of their didactic activities.
However, the number of tests is large, which is why there is no numerical description of tests in the literature, but rather attempts to classify their types. Because some types of tests do not exist in a model way, and there is only an object that they measure, the principle of their creation and use.
This means that a person who wants to study the scope of knowledge from some subject will not find such a test in the literature. It can create it having a goal and knowing the general principles of building tests of school achievements.
However, there are also real and model tests and they can not be changed, and specialist preparation is necessary for their application (eg tests of intelligence, school maturity, personality, and especially thorough preparation and extensive experience require projection tests).
Test classification can be made from different points of view and using different criteria. For example, tests can be divided taking into account the substantive criterion – that is, the division according to the principle, what the test measures and its methodological criterion.
I. From the point of view of the object of measurement stands out:
- Ability tests
tests of special abilities,
- Personality tests
- Message tests
II. From the point of view of the measurement methodology:
- Verbal and non-verbal tests
- Functional tests (handling, performance tests)
instrument tests (blocks, puzzles, etc.),
- Projection tests
Well-prepared tests are properly standardized
and normalized, they are characterized by high reliability and accuracy, high objectivity, discriminatory power and economic efficiency. The test results are quantified
and this result is the basis for reasoning about certain properties.